What is the history of monasticism?
Monasticism emerged in the late 3rd century and had become an established institution in the Christian church by the 4th century. The first Christian monks, who had developed an enthusiasm for asceticism, appeared in Egypt and Syria.
What is the earliest form of monasticism?
An early form of “proto-monasticism” appeared as well in the 3rd century among Syriac Christians through the “Sons of the covenant” movement. Eastern Orthodoxy looks to Basil of Caesarea as a founding monastic legislator, as well to as the example of the Desert Fathers.
Who is the founder of monasticism?
Benedict of Nursia
Benedict of Nursia (480-543): Considered the father of Western monasticism, Benedict originally took up the life of a hermit, but after being surrounded by numerous others, he founded a communal house at Monte Cassino.
What led to the rise of monasticism?
A significant impetus to the rise of Monasticism in Europe came from the legalization of Christianity. The erstwhile illicit nature of Christianity in the Roman Empire allowed devout Christians to publicly announce their religion, in exchange for an enduring test that lasted till their execution.
Who influenced monasticism in the West?
By the 9th century, largely under the inspiration of Emperor Charlemagne, Benedict’s Rule became the basic guide for Western monasticism.
When did monasticism decline?
Many of these were related to the Protestant Reformation in Continental Europe. By the end of the 16th century, monasticism had almost entirely disappeared from those European states whose rulers had adopted Lutheran or Reformed confessions of faith (Ireland being the only major exception).
Where did Buddhist monasticism originate?
Monasticism flourished in Northwest India under the Kūṣāṇa kings, and as time went on Buddhist monasticism spread along the central Asian trade routes into China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Tibet.
When did Buddhist monasticism start?
Originally, bhikkus were the mendicant followers of the Buddha (6th century bc) who had left their families and worldly pursuits in order to meditate and to apply the Buddha’s teachings to their everyday life.
Who standardized monasticism?
communal monasticism, beginning with the Rule of St. Benedict in the 6th century, enabled standardization to become possible.
Why was monasticism such a characteristic feature of medieval Christianity?
Monasticism became quite popular in the Middle Ages, with religion being the most important force in Europe. Monks and nuns were to live isolated from the world to become closer to God. Monks provided service to the church by copying manuscripts, creating art, educating people, and working as missionaries.
What role did early monasticism play in late antiquity?
But monasticism also offered society a spiritual outlet and ideal with important consequences for medieval culture as a whole. Monasteries encouraged literacy, promoted learning, and preserved the classics of ancient literature, including the works of Cicero, Virgil, Ovid, and Aristotle.
How did monasticism influence everyday life in the Middle Ages?