What is autopoiesis Maturana?
2.5 Autopoiesis Autopoiesis, or ‘self-production,’ is a concept introduced in the 1970s by the biologists Maturana and Varela to differentiate the living from the nonliving.
Which of the following is the best definition for autopoiesis as described in Niklas Luhmann’s systems theory?
Luhmann likens the operation of autopoiesis (the filtering and processing of information from the environment) to a program, making a series of logical distinctions (in German, Unterscheidungen).
What is autopoiesis in family therapy?
Autopoiesis is the process where a living system internally responds to messages from all components of itself in order to preserve its organization enabling the system to exist and remain identifiable (Leyland 1988).
Who invented the word autopoiesis?
The central concept around which the theory of social systems as developed by the later Niklas Luhmann is built is the concept of autopoiesis, originally developed by the two Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela. Autopoiesis (< Greek: autos = self, poiein = to produce) means self-(re)production.
Are humans Autopoietic?
Following Varela and Maturana, she contends that every human order is an “autopoietic, autonomously functioning, languaging, living system” (Wynter 2015, 32).
What is a second order Autopoietic system?
The system observes events in the environment and absorbs them according to its own code and program. Problems of maladaptation to the environment can be discovered by second-order observation, that is, self-observation and self-description.
What is the etymology of autopoiesis?
The term autopoiesis (from Greek αὐτo- (auto-) ‘self’, and ποίησις (poiesis) ‘creation, production’) refers to a system capable of producing and maintaining itself by creating its own parts.
What is an example of second order cybernetics?
But a conversation can also be used to talk about itself (it is reflexive). A conversation may be held about conversation, even within that conversation, being simultaneously both the subject of the conversation and the actual conversation itself. It is a second order Cybernetics system.
What is cybernetic system example?
Examples of cybernetic systems are various kinds of automatic control devices in engineering (for example, an automatic pilot or a controller that maintains a constant temperature in a room), electronic computers, the human brain, biological populations, and human society.
What is 1st and 2nd order cybernetics?
Foerster referred to it as “the control of control and the communication of communication” and differentiated first order cybernetics as “the cybernetics of observed systems” and second order cybernetics as “the cybernetics of observing systems”.
What are the applications of cybernetics?
Cybernetics has been influenced by and, in turn, has applications in fields as diverse as psychology and control theory, philosophy and mechanical engineering, architecture and evolutionary biology, or social sciences and electrical engineering.