What are the virulence factors of leptospirosis?
Several candidate virulence factors have been identified that might contribute to the pathogenesis of Leptospira infection and disease, including LPS (which is thought of as a general virulence factor of Gram-negative bacteria), hemolysins, outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and other surface proteins, as well as adhesion …
Is Leptospira intracellular?
These data suggested that L. interrogans can, at least in part, survive and replicate within murine macrophages and that the surviving bacteria are released into the extracellular space. Leptospira interrogans replicates within murine macrophages and is released to the extracellular compartment.
How does leptospirosis grow?
Leptospira bacteria usually enter the body through skin cuts or abrasions, and occasionally through the lining of the mouth, nose, and eyes. Infections are usually associated with exposure to water, soil or mud contaminated with the urine from infected animals.
Is Leptospira Gram positive or negative?
Leptospira is a flexible, spiral-shaped, Gram-negative spirochete with internal flagella. Leptospira interrogans has many serovars based on cell surface antigens.
How does the immune system fight leptospirosis?
As leptospires are extracellular pathogens, the acquired immune response depends on the production of antibodies and the activation of the classical pathway of the complement system. In leptospirosis, most of the specific antibodies produced are against the LPS.
Is lepto zoonotic?
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis occurring worldwide, caused by pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. Pathogenic leptospires live in the kidneys of a large variety of mammalian species and are excreted into the environment with the urine.
Does Leptospira produce toxins?
Toxins. Endotoxin and exotoxin are the two major types of toxins produced by bacterial pathogens. Pathogenic Leptospira species have no any typical exotoxin-encoding genes but possess a complete set of LPS (i.e. endotoxin) synthesis genes in their genomes [33,34].
What animals carry lepto?
What animals spread leptospirosis? Many wild animals carry the bacteria without getting sick. These animals include rodents like rats, mice, and squirrels, as well as raccoons, skunks, opossums, foxes, and deer.
Is Leptospira a bacteria?
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may be mistaken for other diseases. Some infected persons, however, may have no symptoms at all.