How is collagen improved as a scaffold for tissue engineering?

How is collagen improved as a scaffold for tissue engineering?

We found that our collagen sponges presented improved stiffness and supported chondrocyte attachment and proliferation. Cells underwent maturation, depositing an abundant extracellular matrix throughout the scaffold, expressing high levels of type X collagen, type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase.

What are collagen scaffolds?

A collagen scaffold was the first tissue-engineered construct used for meniscal tissue in clinical practice [19,101]. Highly porous CMI scaffold is made of type I collagen fibers. Although satisfactory clinical results are reported on CMI scaffolds, there are some concerns raised over their use.

What is bone tissue scaffold?

A bone scaffold is the 3D matrix that allows and stimulates the attachment and proliferation of osteoinducible cells on its surfaces.

What are bone scaffolds made of?

Materials currently used for bone tissue scaffold fabrication are inorganic materials and natural or synthetic polymers. To enhance the mechanical properties of polymers, to utilize their excellent characteristics and to increase tissue interaction, composites of polymers and ceramics have been developed.

Why is collagen used in tissue engineering?

Collagen can be extracted and purified from a variety of sources and offers low immunogenicity, a porous structure, good permeability, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Collagen scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to these excellent properties.

What makes collagen an effective biomaterial?

Collagen is used as a biomaterial because of its wide applicability in various fields. Its versatile role is due to its immense properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and easy availability [1-3].

How do collagen scaffolds work?

The structure, known as a ‘collagen scaffold’, is a 3D porous network of collagen through which cells can permeate and perform their regenerative functions, and hence, when placed into a wound, allows fresh tissue to be deposited homogenously along the damaged tissue.

What are the properties of a bone scaffold?

These design parameters should lead to specific scaffold properties, which include biocompatibility, porosity, micro and nano-scale structure, degradation rate, mechanical strength, and growth factor delivery, all of which dictate the biomaterial to be used or developed.

What is collagen polymer?

Collagen is a naturally occurring matrix polymer which is highly conserved across species. It is the predominant extra-cellular matrix component of most connective tissues within the mammalian body, comprising one third of all protein found within tissues. Collagens are extracellular and have a mainly structural role.