What was the climate like during the Holocene?
The Holocene Climate Optimum warm event consisted of increases of up to 4 °C near the North Pole (in one study, winter warming of 3 to 9 °C and summer of 2 to 6 °C in northern central Siberia). Northwestern Europe experienced warming, but there was cooling in Southern Europe.
How much did the average temperature vary during the Holocene?
The temperature often varied more than 20 degrees during a few hundred years or perhaps less. The Holocene cold and warm periods, however, represent only small temperature changes compared to both the glaciation periods and the other interglacial periods.
What are the effects of these climate variability?
Increased heat, drought and insect outbreaks, all linked to climate change, have increased wildfires. Declining water supplies, reduced agricultural yields, health impacts in cities due to heat, and flooding and erosion in coastal areas are additional concerns.
What caused the Holocene Thermal Maximum?
The Holocene thermal maximum was characterized by strong summer solar heating that substantially increased the summertime temperature relative to preindustrial climate.
What are the basic features of climate change in Holocene period?
The Holocene climate history showed three stages of natural climate oscillations in the Baltic Sea region: short-term cold episodes related to deglaciation during a stable positive temperature trend (11,000–8000 cal year BP); a warm and stable climate with air temperature 1.0–3.5 °C above modern levels (8000–4500 cal …
What is special about the Holocene?
The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition towards urban living in the present.
What was the climate in the Holocene Epoch?
The Holocene climatic optimum (HCO) was a period of warming in which the global climate became warmer. However, the warming was probably not uniform across the world. This period of warmth ended about 5,500 years ago with the descent into the Neoglacial and concomitant Neopluvial.
Why was the Holocene important for humans?
Yet the Holocene has also seen the great development of human knowledge and technology, which can be used — and are being used — to understand the changes that we see, to predict their effects, and to stop or ameliorate the damage they may do to the Earth and to us.
What causes Holocene climate change?
Climate change in the Baltic Sea basin during the Holocene has been the result of various external and internal factors: changes in incoming seasonal solar radiation due to slow changes in the Earth’s orbit, variations in the concentration of stratospheric aerosol caused by volcanic activity , change in the greenhouse …
What is so special about the Holocene?
The sediments of the Holocene, both continental and marine, cover the largest area of the globe of any epoch in the geologic record, but the Holocene is unique because it is coincident with the late and post-Stone Age history of humankind.