What is the purpose of an Efference copy?
Efference copies are those neural representations of motor outputs that predict reafferent sensory feedback and modulate the response of the corresponding sensory cortex. Efference copies of the motor command travel to the appropriate sensory cortex preparing it for reafferent stimuli (Cullen, 2004).
What is an efference copy motor control?
In physiology, an efference copy or efferent copy is an internal copy of an outflowing (efferent), movement-producing signal generated by an organism’s motor system.
In what brain structure is this Efference copy thought to originate in the vestibular system?
Motor cortex is thought to initiate these predictions by generating an internal copy of its output, termed “efference copy” (Sperry, 1950; von Holst and Mittelstaedt, 1950), that alerts sensory cortices to upcoming feedback, changing their response properties.
What is the meaning of Efference?
adj. 1. Directed away from a central organ or section. 2. Carrying impulses from the central nervous system to an effector.
Which cortical areas receive vestibular information?
Fourth, in the prefrontal cortex, area 6 and the superior frontal gyrus receive vestibular signals and are related to the frontal eye field (FEF).
What is efferent fiber?
Efferent, or motor, nerve fibres carry impulses away from the central nervous system; afferent, or sensory, fibres carry impulses toward the central nervous system.
What is efferent and afferent?
The afferent or sensory division transmits impulses from peripheral organs to the CNS. The efferent or motor division transmits impulses from the CNS out to the peripheral organs to cause an effect or action.
What are sensory cortices?
The sensory cortex is defined as all cortical areas linked with sensory functions(1). In another definition, the sensory cortex is a section of the cerebral cortex which is responsible for receiving and interpreting sensory information from different parts of the body. Stimuli.
How does the efference copy mechanism work?
The efference copy mechanism with sensory feedback to sensory modalities. This mechanism begins with a desired motor command (intended state) sending motor command signals to the motor system for movement execution.
Are there efference copy pathways involved in sensory processing?
Three putative efference copy pathways involved in sensory processing from the literature on human and non-human primate studies. Dashed lines are predicted connections and pathways potentially used for CD.
What is the purpose of copy structures and pathways?
Efference copy structures and pathways, whether simple or complex, are necessary to evaluate sensory information and separate what is self-generated from more relevant stimuli within the environment.
Where does movement-specific facilitation occur in proprioceptive processing?
Further, movement-specific facilitation has been reported at subsequent stages of proprioceptive processing from the dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway to the somatosensory thalamus [24••,27].