What is insulin-independent glucose uptake?

What is insulin-independent glucose uptake?

The glucose transport proteins (GLUT1 and GLUT4) facilitate glucose transport into insulin-sensitive cells. GLUT1 is insulin-independent and is widely distributed in different tissues.

Is glucose uptake dependent on insulin?

In the human body, glucose uptake is accomplished via two mechanisms, insulin mediated glucose uptake (IMGU), which occurs only in insulin-sensitive tissues (i.e. liver, muscle and adipocytes) and non-insulin mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU), which occurs in both insulin-sensitive and non-insulin-sensitive tissues (i.e. …

How does insulin regulate glucose uptake?

Insulin increases glucose uptake mainly by enriching the concentration of Glut4 proteins at the plasma membrane, rather than by increasing the intrinsic activity of the transporter (2,3).

Which glut transporter is insulin-independent?

GLUT1 is insulin-independent and is widely distributed in different tissues. GLUT4 is insulin-dependent and is responsible for the majority of glucose transport into muscle and adipose cells in anabolic conditions.

Which is an insulin dependent diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.

What are insulin independent tissues?

It should be noted here that there are some tissues that do not require insulin for efficient uptake of glucose: important examples are brain and the liver. This is because these cells don’t use GLUT4 for importing glucose, but rather, another transporter that is not insulin-dependent. 2.

What is insulin uptake?

1. Insulin-Dependent Glucose Uptake Mediated by Subcellular Redistribution of the Glucose Transporter. Insulin is an anabolic hormone that acts on various target tissues, including the liver, skeletal muscle, and fat tissue, regulating the blood glucose level [1,2,3,4].

Do cells need insulin for glucose uptake?

As insulin is not required for GLUT1- or GLUT3-mediated glucose transport, insulin is not needed for glucose transport into most brain cells. Insulin does, however, play a role as a neuroregulatory peptide, and this role is slowly being unraveled (5).

What changes insulin into glucose?

A spike in insulin signals to the liver that blood glucose is also high. The liver absorbs glucose then changes it into a storage molecule called glycogen.

Which cells are stimulated by insulin for uptake of glucose?

Insulin stimulates the liver to store glucose in the form of glycogen. A large fraction of glucose absorbed from the small intestine is immediately taken up by hepatocytes, which convert it into the storage polymer glycogen. Insulin has several effects in liver which stimulate glycogen synthesis.

Which tissues are insulin independent?

Table 2

Tissue Distribution Characteristics
β cell Insulin-independent
Small intestine
Brain neurons Low Km transporter

What is insulin independent mean?

Insulin independence was defined by fasting blood glucose levels ≤126 mg/dL and 2-hour postprandial levels ≤180 mg/dL without exogenous insulin.